What Is The Kyoto Protocol Agreement
The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and the presence of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. The key principle of the Kyoto Protocol was that industrialized countries had to reduce the volume of their CO2 emissions. The United States, which had ratified the original Kyoto agreement, withdrew from the protocol in 2001. The United States thought the agreement was unfair because it was simply calling on industrialized countries to limit emissions reductions, and felt that it would hurt the U.S. economy. There are several institutional differences between the Kyoto mechanisms. lET takes a top-down approach by calculating emissions reductions on the basis of national commitments. The text of Article 17 stipulates that Schedule B governments can act on certain parts of the amounts they have allocated. A sovereign government could decide to allocate the money they have allocated by granting authorisations to private companies (such as companies or sectors) to act on emissions on the national territory. However, it remains to be determined the conditions under which companies can conduct direct trade at the international level. The MOC and cdM are different from those of the EIT, as they are flexible project-based instruments that allow an investor to obtain credits for emissions reductions obtained on the host. In principle, the emission reductions of these projects are not measured from top to bottom on the basis of national commitment, but from the bottom up by an underlying that assesses future emissions at the project site if the project had not taken place.
Developed and developing countries play different roles under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. When the Kyoto Protocol was developed, it was recognized that most of the pollution in the atmosphere came from developed countries, and most of it came from a source – the United States (Figure 17.1). It was felt that it was not right that developing countries, which played a minor role in creating the problem, should be forced to reduce emissions and perhaps delay their economic growth. As a result, only developed countries have had to agree to emission reductions. Countries that were required to reduce emissions if they agreed to be part of the Kyoto Protocol were listed in Schedule 1 of the protocol and are therefore sometimes referred to as Schedule 1 countries. A new climate agreement was needed to maintain the international process to combat climate change beyond 2020. This was adopted at the Paris COP in 2015 in the form of a “Paris Agreement”, which for the first time contained a specific target to limit global warming to a level well below 2oC above pre-industrial levels of 1750.