Withdrawal Agreement 25 November
The draft Brexit withdrawal agreement is 599 pages long. It sets out how the United Kingdom is leaving the European Union. The protocol stipulates that the EU and the UK will be part of a “single customs territory” after the transition period. It is important to understand that this is not the same as staying in the EU customs union. Other formalities will be initiated, even when it comes to minimizing them. However, the UK is free to conclude free trade agreements with the 3rd countries as long as the UK does not apply a tariff below the EU`s Common Customs Tariff and does not apply or grant quotas, tariff quotas or tariff suspensions on its customs territory without the prior consent of the EU.5 14. January 2019 – With Brexit inexorably approaching, the persistent lack of certainty about what a Brexit withdrawal agreement will look like or whether a deal will be reached is causing growing concern in the business community. For the tech sector and those working on technology-driven projects, this concern is particularly strong. This ranges from issues such as access to high-level staff, to the impact of Brexit on the complex network of existing and future supply chains and contracts for the EU and the UK, to the loss of access to the Digital Single Market. The NI Protocol, known as the “backstop,” is intended to be temporary and valid unless it is replaced by an agreement on the future relationship that the parties will seek to conclude by December 31, 2020.
The Protocol foresees that the common travel area and North-South cooperation will continue to a large extent as they do today, as will the internal electricity market (so that some EU legislation on wholesale electricity markets will continue to apply). Immediately after the announcement of a revised withdrawal agreement on 17 October 2019, Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the DUP declared that they could not support the new agreement.  This triggered Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union, which defines the procedure for the withdrawal of a Member State from the Union and allows for a two-year countdown to withdrawal. The UK Parliament must conduct two approval procedures before the UK can ratify the Withdrawal Agreement. The EU Withdrawal Act 2018 and the Constitutional Reform and Governance Act 2010 (CRAG) are procedural obstacles to the UK`s ability to ratify what has been negotiated. The Withdrawal Act also provides for a parliamentary process in the event that an agreement is rejected by the House of Commons or if a negotiated agreement is never presented to it. The draft Withdrawal Agreement and the Political Declaration have potentially important implications for the UK Constitution. .